We have listed 16 things you should know about bone marrow transplantation to help you decode it.

  1. Bone marrow is a spongy, flexible tissue encased within the bones of the body. It contains immature cells called stem cells which later develop into red blood cells through a process called hematopoietic.
  2. Apart from red blood cells, the bone marrow tissues are also a part of the lymphatic system and produces lymphocytes or white blood cells which fight infections in our body.
  3. Bone marrow constitutes about 4% of the total body mass of a person on an average.
  4. Bone marrow diseases occur when the stem cells cannot develop properly or even if they develop, they have an abnormal growth.
  5. Bone marrow diseases can be caused by both environmental as well as genetic factors and can be detected when the bone marrow tissue goes through various tests.
  6. Dharamshala Chance Hospital & Research Centre and Indraprastha Apollo Hospital situated in New Delhi along with Narayan Multispeciality Hospital in Bengaluru are the top 3 hospitals which house a number of great bone marrow transplant specialists India.
  7. Bone marrow transplantation can be of three different types, namely, autologous, allogeneic and umbilical bone marrow transplantation.
  8. Autologous bone marrow transplant is also known as rescue transplant. Here, healthy stem cells are harvested from the patient's own body following which the patient undergoes chemotherapy or radiation to eradicate the unhealthy stem cells from the body. Then the healthy stem cell, which were frozen to store, are introduced into the patient's body so it could resume producing new, healthy blood cells.
  9. During, allogeneic bone marrow transplant, healthy stem cells are collected from another person, called the donor. It is essential for the donor to be of a close genetic match with the patient for the treatment to work.
  10. Leukapheresis is the procedure through which stem cells are collected from the donors. About five shot are given to the donor to extract the stem cells from the marrow to the blood cells. Then some blood is drawn out and centrifuged to separate its contents to finally get the stem cells
  11. Stem cells can be extracted from the umbilical cord of a newborn baby without having any adverse affect on the baby. The collected stem cells are later used to treat people with bone marrow diseases through allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
  12. Graft failure is one of the complications that can arise after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. It occurs when the newly introduced stem cells fail to generate new blood cells in the patient's body.
  13. Another complication called graft - versus - host can arise where the body’s immunity work against the newly introduced donor stem cells and attack them.
  14. However, with the right doctor you need not worry about these complications. Dr. P. Anoop, Dr. Vikas Dua and Dr. Soumya Bhattacharya are the best bone marrow transplant specialist India.
  15. The patient is kept under close watch for 10 to 28 days after the transplant.
  16. The typical recovery time for a bone marrow transplant is about 3 months. However, it can take up to a whole year for a patient to recover completely depending on the condition of the patient, treatment and aftercare.