Acids and Bases

All liquids are classified either as acids or bases. The nature of ions determines whether a liquid is an acid or base. With more hydrogen ions, the liquid is an acid whereas, with more hydroxide ions, it is a base. Concepts of acids and bases are covered in the syllabus of class 10 board exams. NCERT solutions class 10 science can guide students to answer complex problems related to acids and bases important for the exam point of view. There are distinct ways to define acids. It is derived from the Latin word here, meaning ‘sour’. Acids are a chemical group that accepts electrons or contributes protons or hydrogen. One of the examples for bases that we use in our daily life is baking soda. It is characterized with soap like structure. They become less basic when mixed with acids. A base can be defined as a chemical group that contributes hydroxide ions or electrons and accept protons. There are 3 types of bases namely Lewis base, Bronsted-Lowry base, and Arrhenius base.


  • Both Acids and bases are characterized as weak or strong i.e. when a compound does not completely dissociate into its ions then it is said as a weak acid or base and vice versa.
  • Ph scale - Acids and bases are basically related to the concentration of hydrogen ions. That is bases usually decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions relatively acids increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. Based on the concentration of hydrogen ions, basicity and acidity level can be measured.
  • A common test conducted to detect whether it is an acid or a base is Litmus paper. Acids would turn litmus paper red and base turns it to blue when litmus paper is treated with a fixed amount of lichen that changes color according to the pH value.
  • When you cannot identify whether a given solution is acid or a base, touch and smell may also be considered to differentiate them. Since it is corrosive, it is not possible to touch or taste as it would burn.
  • Essential acids and bases are also present in our body.
  • Bases and Acids react with metals. One of the examples for a reaction between a base and a metal is double displacement reaction. When an acid reacts with metals it releases hydrogen gas.
  • Acids and bases are used in the field of science and technology. Example: Car batteries.
  • When we exercise, muscle releases lattice acid.

Published by Arina Smith