Hormones are the most vital constituents of the human body and the malfunction of one or more hormones may open doors to health hazards. Insulin is one such crucial hormone that passes on energy to the body via blood. The beta cells of the pancreas secrete the hormone when there is an intake of food. Insulin transfers the glucose produced to every living cell and stores the extra glucose to the liver for future use.

Insulin and Diabetes

Diabetes is a widespread disease of the day, the reason behind which is insulin dysfunction. Based on the nature of insulin secretion, diabetes is categorized into two types. When the beta cells are dead, the pancreas becomes incapable of producing insulin. This condition results in type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is when the quantity of the hormone secretion goes down. This is the most common type of diabetes.

Since diabetes is an outcome of insulin imbalance, you need to find ways to set it right. The best option is to introduce artificially synthesized insulin into the bloodstream.

Types of insulin

Insulin is of five different types based on the time it takes to respond. They include,

  • Rapid-acting- This type of insulin has a clear texture and it kicks in within a maximum of 15 minutes. It stays in the system for three to five hours.
  • Short-acting- Short-acting insulin takes about 30 minutes to work. It will be active for up to eight hours.
  • Intermediate-acting- It takes 90 minutes to kick start with an average lifetime of 18 hours.
  • Mixed- This compound is a mixture of intermediate insulin and rapid-acting insulin at a proportion of 3:7.
  • Long-acting- This kind of insulin is administered once or twice a day as per the need of the patient. It lasts around 24 hours.

Why and how to inject insulin?

When taking in insulin, the most commonly preferred method is injection. Yes, the synthesized hormone is injected directly into the bloodstream of the patient. The foremost accessories used to injectinsulin are needles and pipes. They are of course painful ones. With time, the insulin pens replaced the needles. These pens consist of one time use and throw cartridges with measurement units on the sides. Once a cartridge runs out of insulin, you can replace it with a new one. These pens are easy to handle and so the diabetic patients can employ these without the assistance of anyone. Also, the pens are less painful than the needles.

The innovative side

Like any other sphere of medicine, diabetes also invites innovations. With this, the medical researchers have come up with an idea to administer insulin in the oral form. It was impossible so far because the acids produced in the stomach would digest insulin, a protein compound. To overcome the issue, the medical researchers from Havard University have formulated insulin pills with exclusive enzyme resistant coats. Since the enzymes in the gastric tract cannot penetrate these coats, the pills pass through the gut without any damage. So, the body gets its regular dose of insulin all at ease contributing to proper supply of glucose to the cells.